Assessing Bioenergetic Function in Response to Reactive Oxygen Species in Neural Cells
Keywords:Astrocytes; Bioenergetics; Glycolysis; Lund human mesencephalic cells; Oxidative stress; Paraquat
In this study, we characterized the bioenergetic response of the Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cell line and a mouse astrocyte cell line to oxidative stress. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and bioenergetic response were investigated in these cell lines after exposure to paraquat (PQ), a redox cycling compound that causes oxidative stress in cells. We used extracellular flux analysis to measure mitochondrial function in adherent astrocytes and LUHMES cells. Extracellular H2O2 was measured fluorometrically. H2O2 levels increased in both cell lines after exposure to 5 µM PQ for 18 h; however, the extent of H2O2 increase with astrocytes was significantly lower than that with LUHMES cells (33% vs. 67%). Measurements of basal mitochondrial respiration showed that PQ almost completely eliminated oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in astrocytes and significantly reduced it in LUHMES cells. Notably, OCR in LUHMES cells was higher than that in astrocytes, indicating that neuronal cells maintain higher oxidative metabolism than glial cells, which is also consistent with higher energy demands of the neuronal cells. Moreover, LUHMES cells exhibited a higher amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) being produced by oxidative phosphorylation than by glycolysis. In contrast, astrocytes demonstrated a higher glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve than LUHMES cells and higher ATP production rate by glycolysis than its production by mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Collectively, this study showed the differential bioenergetic responses between astrocytes and LUHMES cells in responding to oxidative stress and the findings may provide insights into the mitochondrial reserve capacity in neurons and astrocytes in responding to oxidative stress.
(First online: Mar 30, 2021)
How to Cite
Submission of an original manuscript to the Journal will be taken to mean that it represents original work not previously published; that it is not being considered elsewhere for publication; that the author(s) agrees to assign copyright to the Journal upon acceptance for publication in the Journal, and if accepted for publication, it will be published in the digital format (PDF) and/or in print and it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, for commercial purposes, in any language, without the consent of the Publisher.