Clinical Research on Antioxidants in 2021
Being updated biweekly till the end of the year, this Education & Resources web page lists major clinical studies on antioxidant-based modalities or related entities in disease intervention and health promotion, which have been published in highly influential journals during 2021. It should be noted that this is not intended to be a complete list, but is rather to focus on rigorously designed and well conducted high-profile randomized controlled trials (RCTs) whose findings have been reported in medical or bioscience journals of the highest impact. For more comprehensive information on antioxidant-based clinical trials, the reader may refer to the ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov), the largest clinical trials database, run by the US National Library of Medicine, that holds registrations from over 368,000 trials from 219 countries.
(First online: Feb 15, 2021; being updated biweekly throughout 2021)
2021 LIST IN REVERSE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
Xu et al. Edaravone dexborneol versus edaravone alone for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, comparative trial. Stroke 2021 Mar; 52(3):772-780. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031197.
Key finding: Edaravone dexborneol (a combination of edaravone and borneol) was superior to edaravone alone in improving the clinical outcomes of the acute ischemic stroke patients.
Note: Edaravone, a synthetic free radical scavenger, was approved by the US FDA in 2017 for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Borneol is a phytochemical with diverse biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
Kim et al. Reactive oxygen species scavenger in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2021 Feb 25; doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032266.
Key finding: Giving N-acetylcysteine 2000 mg/day and selenium 1600 µg/day, intravenously, for 14 days significantly improved the clinical outcomes in the acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients.
Note: N-Acetylcysteine is a precursor of glutathione (GSH). Selenium acts as an antioxidant element due, at least partly, to its essentialness for the function of various selenoproteins, including selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx).
Kalstad et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements in elderly patients after myocardial infarction: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 2021 Feb 9; 143(6):528-539. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052209.
Key finding: Null
Note: n-3 Fatty acids, also known as omega-3 fatty acids, possess potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
Lynch et al. Safety and efficacy of omaveloxolone in Friedreich ataxia (MOXIe Study). Ann Neurol 2021 Feb; 89(2):212-225. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25934.
Key finding: Omaveloxolone significantly improved neurological function compared to placebo and was well tolerated.
Meir et al. Effect of green-Mediterranean diet on intrahepatic fat: the DIRECT PLUS randomised controlled trial. Gut 2021 Jan 18; gutjnl-2020-323106. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323106.
Key finding: Green-Mediterranean diet enriched with green plants and polyphenols improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Note: Mediterranean diet and green plants (green tea) and nuts are rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds and possess many health benefits, especially cardiovascular protection. However, the exact contribution of antioxidant components to the health benefits of Mediterranean diet remains to be established.
Rinott et al. Effects of diet-modulated autologous fecal microbiota transplantation on weight regain. Gastroenterology 2021 Jan; 160(1):158-173.e10. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.041.
Key finding: Polyphenol-enriched diet-modulated autologous fecal microbiota transplantation attenuated weight regain and preserved glycemic control.
Note: Dietary polyphenols possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and many other biological activities.
Zheng et al. Plasma vitamin C and type 2 diabetes: genome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization analysis in European populations. Diabetes Care 2021 Jan; 44(1):98-106. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328.
Key finding: Null; no evidence to support an efficacy of vitamin C supplement in type 2 diabetes prevention.
Note: Vitamin C is a multitasking compound; it is an antioxidant, but also possesses many other biological functions. According to Dr Davey Smith, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies (from the US CDC website: https://cdc.gov). A positive finding in a Mendelian randomization study provides strong evidence for a causal relationship.
Luo et al. Diet-derived circulating antioxidants and risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomization study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jan 5; 77(1):45-54. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.048.
Key finding: Null
Note: According to Dr Davey Smith, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies (from the US CDC website: https://cdc.gov). A positive finding in a Mendelian randomization study provides strong evidence for a causal relationship.
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